C. F. Graumann Lecture: Robert Cialdini
Robert B. Cialdini received his PhD from the University of North Carolina and post doctoral training from Columbia University. He has held Visiting Scholar Appointments at Ohio State University, the University of California, the Annenberg School of Communications, and the Graduate School of Business of Stanford University. Currently, he is Regents' Professor Emeritus of Psychology and Marketing at Arizona State University. He has spent his entire career researching the science of influence earning him an international reputation as an expert in the fields of persuasion, compliance, and negotiation.
Norms-based Messaging: An Untapped Power Source for Environmental Action
Social norms, which refer to what most people do (descriptive social norms) and approve (injunctive social norms), are remarkably powerful in directing human action. Equally remarkable is how little note people take of this power at two critical decision points: when, as observers they decide how to interpret the causes of their own actions and when, as communicators they decide how to influence the actions of others. Studies in several environmental contexts (e.g., home energy conservation, household recycling, and hotel conservation programs) show that persuasive communications that employ social norms-based appeals for pro-environmental behavior are superior to those that employ traditional appeals. A new variety of social norm, labeled the provincial norm, proved most effective of all.
Wijnand IJsselsteijn has a background in psychology and artificial intelligence, with an MSc in cognitive neuropsychology from Utrecht University, and a PhD in media psychology/HCI from Eindhoven University of Technology. Since 1996, he has worked on the scientific investigation of how humans interact with advanced media technologies, such as stereoscopic television, virtual environments, or mobile communication services. He is specifically interested in how to conceptualize and measure the human experience in relation to media. The emphasis of more his recent research has been towards digital social media (e.g., human connectedness through awareness systems and locative media), immersive media technology and embodiment (e.g., 3D displays, telepresence, mediated social touch, rubber hand illusion), and gaming (esp. the impact of social context on gaming experience).
Experience Theater 2.0: Media Environments as Research Tools in Social and Environmental Psychology
Eus van Someren
Eus J.W. Van Someren was trained in physics, psychophysiology and neuropsychology and received a cum laude PhD in neurobiology from the faculty of medicine. He is Head of the Department Sleep and Cognition at the Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience of the Royal Academy of Arts and Sciences and is professor of Neurophysiology at the VU University, Amsterdam. His expertise covers sleep, circadian rhythms, cognition, aging, thermoregulation, imaging and acquisition and analysis of physiological and behavioral time-series.
Rhythms in light and temperature affect sleep and performance
The presentation will give an overview of two of two major projects of the Sleep & Cognition group of Van Someren; how sleep and performance are affected by light and temperature. These evolutionary oldest environmental 24-hr oscillations affect sleep-wake regulating systems of the brain. The first long-term study on light exposure showed that enhancement of the 24-hour rhythm in environmental light improves mood and the sleep-wake rhythm in demented elderly, and ameliorates their cognitive dysfunction. Effects of brigh light on mood and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis regulating cortisol were confirmed in elderly suffering from major depression. It is thus worthwhile to implement brighter environments for elderly people, for which practical guidelines can be found at a dedicated website (www.lichtvoorlater.nl). A second important set of findings of this research line is that subtle spontaneous and induced fluctuations in skin temperature alter the level of vigilant cognitive functioning during the day and alter the depth of sleep and the expression of slow oscillations typical of sleep during the night. Brain structural and functional studies suggest involvement of abnormalities in thermal sensing in insomnia. We recently initiated, the Netherlands Sleep Registry, an internet survey and task-assessment platform for extensive characterization of subtypes of good and poor sleepers. This will be extended to the European level to facilitate selection of homogeneous subgroups for imaging studies – with the ultimate goal of obtaining the endophenotypes and genotypes that are necessary for a better understanding of the brain mechanisms of chronic insomnia and sound sleep (www.slaapregistry.eu).
UP Fachgruppen lecture: Sebastian Bamberg
Sebastian Bamberg received his PhD from the University of Gießen, Germany. He has held Visiting Scholar Appointments at the University of Dresden, and the University of Magdeburg. Currently, he is Professor of Social Psychology and Quantitative Research Methods at the University of Applied Science, Bielefeld. His main interest and expertise is in theory-based development of behavioral change interventions.
Processes of voluntary behavioral change: Implications for intervention development
Social cognitive models like Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior are frequently used as theoretical basis for the development of interventions aiming to promote pro-environmental behavior. However, there is growing evidence that they might be good models for predicting current behavior, but are less helpful for developing effective behavioral change interventions. One reason is their static nature: they made little assumption when and how individual behavioral change starts, how it proceeds, and when it is successful. Because of their focus on the dynamic processes underlying behavioral change, self-regulation models might provide a better theoretical basis for intervention research. A stage model of self-regulated pro-environmental behavioral change is presented and it is demonstrated how to use this model for systematically developing and evaluating stage tailored intervention modules.